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If you are a security researcher who would like to learn more about our findings, or to explore other potential mempool anomalies, please get in touch. Summary Blocknative's forensic mempool investigation surfaced three major contributing mempool factors to the events on March 12 and Stuck Transactions — mempool congestion significantly increased stuck transaction rates, effectively blocking subsequent transactions from the same address.
Mempool 'Compression' — a dramatic reduction in the marketable portion of the mempool that is, transactions with sufficient gas to be considered by miners , which can bias ETH gas price estimates. We are publishing this analysis and the associated data set in efforts to raise awareness of the dynamic transaction risks that can rapidly emerge during periods of Blockchain network congestion.
As prices fell, a negative feedback loop emerged that reduced liquidity and forced liquidations from various DeFi contracts. This downward pressure created real challenges for every entity attempting to transact on the network during this period. Source: cointelegraph. The rapid price change caused sustained congestion in the Ethereum mempool, as automated transaction systems, such as trading bots, programmatically reacted to the volatility.
Of the 3, liquidation auctions associated with Black Thursday, 1, or Stuck transactions driven by mempool congestion The rapid price change in ETH on March 12 created congestion in the mempool. This was exacerbated by price-triggered bot activity. Hourly count of new pending transactions arriving into the mempool versus confirmed transaction count. The result was a surge of transactions propagating through the network which forced nodes with default mempool configurations to actively protect their system resources by: Evicting, or dropping, many valid transactions.
Rejecting, or ignoring, many valid transactions. Mempools generally evict the transactions with the lowest associated fees. Hourly count of evicted, or dropped, transactions along with new stuck not processable transactions arriving for March 11, through March 14, Critically, evictions have a side effect of increasing the likelihood of stuck transactions.
When a transaction is evicted, the node does not remember any details about the transaction, such as the sending address or the transaction nonce. Therefore, when a new transaction arrives with the next nonce, the node may detect a nonce gap and will be unable to process the new transaction.
Impacted transactions are then placed in the unprocessable Queued portion of the node's mempool. These transactions become stuck regardless of their associated transaction fees that is, gas prices. Meanwhile, network congestion caused rapid increases in the minimum gas price needed to be admitted to a mempool, so the original transactions were now rejected as underpriced.
And since the previously evicted transactions were unable to get back into the mempool, they could not span the transaction nonce gap. In fact, some node implementations actively ignore these rejected transactions for a while in efforts to prevent spamming over the peer-to-peer network. The nonce gap effectively locked addresses out of completing new transactions. Stuck transactions were more likely to impact addresses that issue many new transactions, including automated trading systems, payment networks, and possibly even exchanges.
These systems attempted to course correct, often compounding congestion as more and more transactions are delayed. The only solution? You must first proactively detect when one of your transactions might be stuck. This can be challenging, as your transaction may only be stuck on some — but not all — nodes on the network.
Then, you must identify the first missing transaction in the nonce gap and immediately speed up that transaction with a marketable gas price. Finally, you must continue to monitor the original stuck transaction to ensure that it has been moved from the Queued to the Pending portion of the mempool and has successfully proceeded to finalization.
If your transaction remains stuck, repeat the process above until you can confirm that all transactions in the nonce gap have been successfully resolved. And yes, this is one of the many reasons why we built and operate our Notify API. Compressing the marketable portion of the Ethereum mempool The increase in network congestion — and the resulting increase in stuck transactions — caused the marketable portion of the mempool to shrink. We call this 'mempool compression'.
Miners are incentivized to maximize revenue through block reward and gas utilization at the highest price. Mining operations make decisions on which block templates — that is, candidate blocks — to mine based on the offered gas prices of transactions in the mempool. Due to congestion, several behaviors contributed to compressing the mempool so that a much smaller portion remained relevant to miners: Exhausted resources: Depending on node implementation, the dramatic increase in stuck transactions consumed substantial mempool resources.
This in turn reduced available node resources for processing valid pending transactions. Escalating gas price: The falling ETH price triggered many 'high urgency' transactions that were structured to be confirmed before the value of ETH fell even lower. This drove both individual users and automated bots to rapidly escalate gas prices. Since not all participants were paying close attention to the congestion, the aggregate profile of pending mempool transactions included an unusually large number of underpriced — and hence unmarketable — entries.
Insufficiently responsive pricing algorithms: The gas price distribution of pending transactions in the mempool, and of those confirmed in recently mined blocks, could distort gas price Oracle calculations. This effectively underpriced gas for broad swaths of new transactions, further exacerbating pending transaction gas price disparities.
As mempool congestion rose, the gas price required to be mined and get on-chain climbed as expected. ErrInvalidSender The ErrInvalidSender transaction error occurs when the signature from the address from which you are sending the transaction is invalid. To fix the ErrInvalidSender error, sign the transaction from the correct address and try submitting the transaction again. On the surface, ErrNonceTooLow occurs when the nonce value is less than or equal to the corresponding value of your last submitted transaction.
Recall that the nonce is an integer associated with each address, which increases monotonically with each transaction submitted from that address. Insufficient and excessive relative to what? This is where things get hairy. Informally, the nonce increment is validated against the last transaction originating from a given address that is known by the Ethereum node that is processing the new transaction.
That sentence is somewhat of a mouthful, so let us introduce some simple notation to help keep track of things. What happened? Blockchains are eventually consistent systems, and this has two important consequences. At the consensus level, a given Ethereum node may be looking at stale or invalid chain states at any given time. At the pre-consensus level — i. Similarly, NonceTooLow can fail to occur when transactions are spread across different nodes, depending on how they propagate.
ErrNonceTooLow can usually be remedied by incrementing the nonce though, beware of the nonce-gap! ErrNonceTooHigh, on the other hand, is more ambiguous. It frequently resolves on its own, as transactions propagate through the network, but may also require decrementing the nonce. ErrUnderpriced ErrUnderpriced occurs when a transaction's gas price is below the minimum amount that the node has been configured to accept.
To fix this error, increase the gas price for the transaction and try again. ErrReplaceUnderpriced ErrReplaceUnderpriced occurs when a user tries to replace or cancel a transaction and the amount of gas is not higher than the original transaction. ErrInsufficientFunds The ErrInsufficientFunds error is a common Ethereum transaction failure that occurs when the sending wallet does not have enough funds ETH to cover the maximum gas the transaction can consume plus any ETH funds directly sent in the transaction.
ErrIntrinsicGas Before a smart contract can be executed on Ethereum, there is a fixed cost—known as the intrinsic gas—that must be paid. This cost is calculated dynamically and depends on both the transaction type and the number of bytes in the transaction payload. If the gas limit is less than the intrinsic fee, miners will reject the transaction.
To fix an ErrIntrinsicGas error, increase the transaction gas limit and submit the transaction again. Need we say more?
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Your connection will point to an RPC endpoint and can optionally provide an Ethereum account that can be used for signing. This signing is only necessary for performing write actions on the . Jul 22, · If you’re familiar with the Ethereum network congestion problem, then you’re aware of the effect it has had on gas fees, the network’s TPS, and Ethereum’s general . Congestion on the Ethereum Network. The Ethereum network is unique in that it uses gas to fuel transactions. ↪ What is Gas? When Bittrex detects blockchain congestion on the .